Fairness metrics are quantitative measures used to assess and mitigate bias in machine learning models. They help identify and quantify unfair treatment or discrimination against certain groups or individuals.

As AI systems grow in influence, so does the risk of perpetuating or amplifying biases and inequalities. Fairness in AI helps prevent discrimination and promote equitable treatment for all individuals.

By applying fairness metrics, data scientists and AI engineers can identify potential sources of unfairness, assess the impact of their models on different demographic groups, and make necessary adjustments to ensure more equitable outcomes.

What is Bias in Artificial Intelligence?

AI bias refers to systematic and unfair discrimination that arises from the algorithms or data used to train machine learning models. This bias can manifest in various forms, including racial, gender, age, or socio-economic biases, and can lead to unfair treatment of certain groups or individuals.

Bias can emerge at different stages of the AI development process, from data collection and preparation to model training and deployment. If the data used to train an AI system is not representative of the broader population or contains historical biases, the resulting model may perpetuate or even amplify these biases.

For instance, if a hiring algorithm is trained on data that predominantly reflects the characteristics of successful candidates from a specific demographic, it may unfairly favor similar candidates in the future and create disadvantages to other qualified applicants.

Similarly, facial recognition systems trained on datasets that lack diversity may perform poorly on individuals from underrepresented groups.

Bias can also arise from the way algorithms are designed or the metrics used to evaluate their performance. If the objective function of a model prioritizes certain outcomes over others without considering fairness, the resulting decisions may be biased.

The Purpose of Fairness Metrics in AI

Fairness metrics are essential tools for identifying, measuring, and mitigating bias in AI systems. These metrics help ensure that AI models do not disproportionately harm any particular group. Let’s walk through their benefits.

Identification of Bias

Fairness metrics help detect and quantify bias in AI models. By applying these metrics, you can identify instances where the model’s decisions may be unfairly skewed against certain groups.
Evaluation of Model Performance
Fairness metrics provide a framework for evaluating how well an AI model adheres to fairness principles. This evaluation helps us understand the trade-offs between model accuracy and fairness.

Guiding Model Development

These metrics offer guidance during the model development process. By regularly checking fairness metrics, developers can iteratively improve their models to be more equitable.

Building Trust and Accountability

Fairness metrics foster transparency and accountability. They give stakeholders confidence in the system’s decisions, knowing that efforts have been made to ensure fairness.

Compliance with Regulations

Increasingly, regulations and standards require the use of fairness metrics to ensure non-discriminatory practices in AI. Adhering to these metrics helps organizations comply with legal and ethical standards.

What Does “Fairness” Mean?

Fairness in AI can be understood through three primary perspectives: equality, equity, and justice. Each offers a unique approach to ensuring that AI systems operate fairly and justly. (These perspectives are not mutually exclusive and can be integrated for more comprehensive and just AI systems.)


Equality means treating all individuals or groups the same, ensuring everyone has the same opportunities and is subject to the same rules. For example, an AI hiring system with an equality perspective assesses all candidates using the same criteria, regardless of factors like gender, race, or socioeconomic status.

However, this approach may not address underlying disparities affecting different groups unequally.


Equity recognizes that different groups or individuals have different needs and circumstances. The aim is to provide tailored support to achieve fair outcomes.

In AI, this means designing systems that account for these differences, ensuring everyone has an equal chance of success. For instance, an AI tutor might offer extra resources to underrepresented or disadvantaged students.


Justice in AI includes both procedural and distributive aspects.

Procedural justice ensures that the processes used to create and deploy AI systems are fair, transparent, and inclusive. This involves engaging diverse stakeholders in design and decision-making, ensuring transparency, and allowing for accountability.

Distributive justice focuses on the fair distribution of benefits and burdens, ensuring that AI outcomes do not disproportionately disadvantage certain groups.

5 Important Fairness Metrics

Fairness metrics provide a systematic way to measure and address biases. Each fairness metric offers a unique perspective on what it means to be fair.

1. Statistical Parity/Demographic Parity

Statistical parity, also known as demographic parity, ensures that individuals from different groups have the same probability of receiving a positive outcome.

How to Calculate:


Use Cases:

5 Obstacles to Avoid in RAG Deployment: A Strategic Guide Learn how to prevent RAG failure points and maximize the ROI from your AI implementations.
  • Hiring algorithms to ensure equal hiring rates across genders
  • Loan approval systems to provide equal approval rates across different ethnicities


  • May not account for differences in group qualifications or characteristics
  • Can lead to reverse discrimination if strictly enforced

2. Equal Opportunity

Equal opportunity ensures that qualified individuals from different groups have the same probability of receiving a positive outcome.

How to Calculate:


Use Cases:

  • Educational admission systems to ensure equal chances for equally qualified students from different backgrounds
  • Job promotions to ensure equal opportunities for equally qualified candidates


  • Requires accurate measurement of qualification, which can be subjective
  • May not address biases in the qualification assessment itself

3. Equalized Odds

Equalized odds require that the true positive rate and false positive rate are the same for different groups.

How to Calculate:


Use Cases:

  • Criminal justice systems to ensure equal false positive and true positive rates across different races.
  • Medical diagnosis systems to ensure equal error rates across genders.


  • Difficult to achieve in practice, as it requires balancing multiple rates
  • May conflict with other fairness criteria and overall accuracy

4. Predictive Parity

Predictive parity ensures that the predicted positive outcome has the same precision across different groups.

How to Calculate:


Use Cases:

  • Loan default predictions to ensure equal precision across different demographic groups
  • Healthcare treatment recommendations to ensure equal accuracy across different patient groups


  • May not address underlying disparities in data distribution
  • Can conflict with other fairness metrics like equalized odds

5. Treatment Equality

Treatment equality focuses on balancing the ratio of false positives to false negatives across different groups.

How to Calculate:

P(Outcome=1∣Actual=0,Group=A) / P(Outcome=0∣Actual=1,Group=A) = P(Outcome=1∣Actual=0,Group=B) / P(Outcome=0∣Actual=1,Group=B)

Use Cases:

  • Predictive policing to balance false arrest rates and failure to arrest rates across different communities
  • Fraud detection systems to balance the rates of false alarms and missed frauds across different customer segments.


  • Complex to calculate and interpret
  • May lead to trade-offs with overall model accuracy

Fairness Metric Libraries

We can use various libraries to implement and evaluate fairness in ML models. These libraries provide tools for assessing bias and implementing fairness metrics. Here are some of the most commonly used fairness libraries.

1. Fairlearn

Fairlearn is an open-source Python library developed by Microsoft. It provides tools for assessing and mitigating unfairness in machine learning models. Fairlearn offers both fairness metrics and algorithms for reducing bias. It also includes visualization tools to help interpret fairness metrics and mitigation results.

2. AIF360

AIF360 (AI Fairness 360) is an open-source toolkit developed by IBM. It aims to help detect and mitigate bias in AI models through a comprehensive set of fairness metrics and bias mitigation algorithms. It’s known for its extensive documentation and tutorials to guide you through the process of fairness assessment.

3. Themis-ML

Themis-ML is an open-source library focused on fairness-aware machine learning. It provides tools for implementing and evaluating fairness metrics and algorithms, particularly for binary classification tasks. It’s also designed to integrate easily with existing machine learning workflows using scikit-learn.

4. Fairness Indicators

Fairness Indicators is a library developed by Google to help assess the fairness of machine learning models. It provides tools for evaluating fairness metrics and visualizing disparities across different demographic groups. It’s designed to work seamlessly with TensorFlow Extended and TensorFlow Model Analysis.

5. FairComp

FairComp is an open-source library for comparing different fairness interventions and metrics. It provides a standardized framework for evaluating the trade-offs between fairness and accuracy. It also enables benchmarking of models against various fairness metrics.

Interpreting Fairness Metrics

In order to get the most value from your fairness metrics, it’s important to interpret them reasonably. Here are some best practices for fairness interpretation and some common pitfalls to avoid.

Best Practices for Interpretation

To effectively interpret fairness metrics, follow these best practices:

Step 1: Use Multiple Metrics: Evaluate your model using several fairness metrics to get a comprehensive view of its performance. This approach helps capture different dimensions of fairness and identify potential biases.

Step 2: Contextual Analysis: Consider the social and practical implications of fairness metrics in your specific use case. Understand the impact of any disparities on the affected groups.

Step 3: Regular Monitoring: Continuously monitor fairness metrics as part of your model maintenance routine. Regular checks can help identify and address emerging biases over time.

Step 4: Stakeholder Involvement: Engage stakeholders, including those from potentially impacted groups, in the evaluation process. Their insights can provide valuable perspectives on what constitutes fairness in your context.

Step 5: Balance Fairness and Accuracy: Aim for a balanced approach that considers both fairness and overall model performance. Evaluate how different fairness interventions impact model accuracy and make informed trade-offs.

Step 6: Iterative Improvement: Use fairness metrics to guide iterative improvements in your model. Continuously refine your approach based on results and stakeholder feedback.

Common Fairness Pitfalls to Avoid

Several common pitfalls can lead to misinterpretation or inappropriate conclusions.

  • Ignoring Context: Metrics must be interpreted in the context of the specific application and the characteristics of the population. A disparity in one context may be more problematic than in another.
  • Over-Reliance on a Single Metric: Using only one fairness metric can be misleading. Different metrics capture different aspects of fairness, and relying on one may overlook other critical fairness issues.
  • Confusing Correlation with Causation: Just because two groups show different metrics does not mean that the model is inherently biased. Other factors, such as differences in underlying data distributions, may contribute to these disparities.
  • Neglecting Performance Trade-offs: Striving for fairness may impact overall model performance. It’s important to consider the trade-offs between fairness and accuracy.
  • Static Evaluation: Fairness should be continuously monitored, as models may evolve over time and new data may introduce new biases.

Balancing Fairness and Performance

Fairness and accuracy often exist in tension within machine learning models, as improving fairness may sometimes require compromising on accuracy, and vice versa. This trade-off arises because the data used to train models may reflect historical biases, and efforts to mitigate these biases can reduce the amount of usable data, impacting accuracy.

Algorithms optimized for accuracy might inadvertently learn biased patterns, and adjusting these algorithms to reduce bias can decrease their predictive power. Different fairness metrics can also conflict with one another and with the objective of maximizing accuracy, necessitating careful consideration to balance these competing goals.

So how do we balance fairness and performance?

Pre-Processing Techniques

Pre-Processing Techniques include data augmentation, which enhances training datasets by adding more diverse examples, and reweighting, which adjusts the weights of different data samples to ensure balanced representation of all groups.

In-Processing Techniques

In-Processing Techniques involve incorporating fairness constraints directly into the optimization process to balance fairness and accuracy. Adversarial debiasing is used, which employs adversarial networks to minimize biases while maintaining model performance.

Post-Processing Techniques

Post-Processing Techniques include threshold adjustment, which involves modifying decision thresholds for different groups to balance the rate of positive outcomes. Output adjustment can be employed to alter model outputs, ensuring fairer distributions of outcomes.

Model Evaluation and Selection

Model Evaluation and Selection involves the use of multi-objective optimization techniques that aim to optimize for both accuracy and fairness simultaneously. It includes the regular practice of cross-validation, where models are validated on diverse subsets to ensure balanced performance across all groups.

Real-World Examples of Accuracy/Fairness Tradeoffs

To help you understand the required balance of model accuracy and fairness, let’s look at some real-world examples.

Hiring Algorithms

A hiring algorithm that optimizes for historical hiring patterns may replicate biases against certain groups. Adjusting the model to ensure equal opportunity may reduce its accuracy in predicting future job performance.

Implement pre-processing techniques such as reweighting to balance the representation of all groups in the training data, and use fairness-constrained optimization during model training.

Loan Approval Systems

A loan approval system that uses credit history data might unfairly disadvantage minority applicants who have historically had less access to credit. Improving fairness might lead to higher default rates if not managed carefully.

Use adversarial debiasing to minimize biases in the approval process while maintaining the model’s ability to predict loan repayment accurately. Implement continuous monitoring to adjust decision thresholds dynamically.

Healthcare Diagnosis Tools

A healthcare diagnosis tool trained on data from predominantly one demographic may not perform well for other groups, leading to disparities in treatment recommendations. Balancing fairness and accuracy can be life-critical.

Use data augmentation to include diverse patient data, and apply multi-objective optimization to ensure that the tool remains accurate while providing fair treatment recommendations across all demographics.

Future of Fairness in AI

AI fairness is evolving rapidly with new trends, research, policies, and challenges continually emerging. This dynamic landscape is driving concerted efforts to create AI systems that are not only accurate but also equitable across diverse user groups.

Emerging Trends and Research

Fairness-Aware AI Development: Increasing focus on integrating fairness considerations throughout the AI development lifecycle, from data collection to model deployment

Explainable AI (XAI): Development of techniques to make AI models more interpretable and transparent, helping stakeholders understand how decisions are made and identify potential biases

Intersectional Fairness: Research on addressing intersectional biases that affect individuals belonging to multiple marginalized groups, going beyond single-axis fairness metrics

Algorithmic Auditing: Growth of third-party auditing practices to assess and certify the fairness of AI systems, providing external validation and accountability

Collaborative Fairness: Collaboration between AI developers, social scientists, and ethicists to create more holistic and socially aware AI systems

Bias Mitigation Technologies: Advancements in bias mitigation techniques, including new algorithms and tools that reduce bias while maintaining model performance

The Role of Policy and Regulation

Governments and regulatory bodies are implementing laws and standards to ensure fairness in AI systems. Notable examples include the EU’s AI Act and the Algorithmic Accountability Act in the US, which set guidelines for fair and ethical AI practices.

It won’t be long before we see mechanisms for compliance and enforcement. This will include penalties for non-compliance and incentives for adopting fair practices. Transparency and accountability are central to these regulatory efforts. We’ll see policies that require transparency in AI decision-making processes. This means AI systems can be audited and held responsible for their impacts.

Fairness for Ethical AI

AI fairness is not just a technical challenge but a moral imperative. By understanding and applying key fairness metrics, you can develop systems that promote justice and inclusivity. As AI continues to shape various aspects of our lives, it is critical to integrate fairness into every step of the AI development process.

We encourage you to adopt these practices and strive for fairness in your AI projects. By doing so, you contribute to creating technology that benefits all members of society, fostering trust and promoting ethical standards in the AI community.